How to provide structure to your child's school work

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Many children who experience concentration problems also lack structuring skills when it comes to school work. As a matter of fact all young children, Picture1especially foundation phase children in primary school, need structure to help them organise better, have more control over the tasks they have to do and experience a sense of calmness and competence.   When a child’s life is chaotic and unpredictable and their surroundings are just as worse, they will find it extremely hard to get a grip on how to complete assignments in an organised fashion. Their mental processes are also disorganised. They tend to struggle to get their thoughts in line and to mentally structure the tasks in an orderly way. Their approach is haphazard, chaotic and sometime frantic – and even more so for children who already have a bio-chemical imbalance that causes their concentration and meta-cognitive problems.

 

What children with any kind of concentration difficulty need are lots of STRUCTURE. Before we go into the practicalities, let’s take a look at the composition of the concept “structure” and what it doesn’t consist of.

 Structure table

 

Now let’s look at each characteristic of the concept structure in more practical terms:

 

*  Structure means consistent routine

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This is a well-known fact among parents and teachers alike. If you want to help a child focus better and experience confidence and stability then a predictable time schedule is crucial. A child experiencing a set routine is a much calmer, more disciplined kid than when decisions regarding daily routine are frequently changed by parents who live on the whim. A child needs to know what will happen next and to be reminded of this prior to the switch in activity, to be able to adjust their mental processes to switch from one activity to the next. When they do not know what to expect they get very upset when transitions are enforced on them and in general it creates a feeling and experience on emotional and mental level of disorganisation and uncertainty.

 

Here are a few pointers to make sure a fixed routine is adhered to:

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    • Make sure that your child’s mornings (before going to school) are well-organised. Any rushed chaotic experience of morning routine will set their minds accordingly and that is how their day will start. Make sure that things like packed school bags, clean school uniforms and to a certain extent even lunch bags are ready for the next day the previous evening or afternoon. To start a morning rushed and disorganised and then on top of it coming late for school does not create any experience of order and stability in a child’s school life.
    • After school make sure that a certain routine is followed consistently. Work this out according to your child’s abilities. If he is able to start doing homework immediately after changing and having lunch, then stick to this routine. If he needs a bigger break from school then give him this, but make sure that it isn’t too long since children are much more unresponsive to doing quality school work later in the afternoon or evenings.
    • Remind your child five minutes in advance that he needs to get ready for homework, so that he can mentally start switching to a new task.

 

*  Structure equals organisation and planning

 

Picture4Children with concentration problems are prone to not know where to start with an activity, especially if no-one ever took the time to teach them this. For such a child it will not help to only say: “Go and do your homework now!”. He does not know where to start. It may seem common sense for an adult to know that we start by organisation the books, work place and stationary before starting to work, but for a Grade 1 child this is totally new. You have to show them the steps of how to organise things before working, for example tidying the desk where you’re working, putting the books in a pile in order to what needs to be done first to last and making sure all stationary like sharpened pencils, erasers, rulers, etc. are ready within the outstretch of an arm. When these things are not set out, it not only wastes time starting to look for them or first having to sharpen a pencil, but it is also a source of distraction which breaks up the flow of mental processing during complex tasks like writing and maths. An organised desk space will go a long way in helping to inject structure into your child’s life. Later in this blog I will talk more about the mental processes taking place during organisation and planning of a task.

 

*  A clean organised environment resembles structure

 

When I see how some people live among clutter and high piled containers and sometimes plain junk in their homes on television, I wonderPicture5 how the poor kids must create a sense of organisation and order in their lives. Vision is one of our primary sensory input systems that impacts hugely on what goes on in our minds. Visual images demands attention and although adults in dire circumstances where they have no control over what the environment looks like, can certainly train themselves to think more positively, it is very difficult to do so for a young child. Here I’m not talking about the parents’ monetary status in term of where they live, but I’m referring to what it looks like regarding rubble and disorganisation at their homes, and especially where the child has to do homework. A child cannot focus on his work properly if the visual images of high piles of stuff on the table or lots of things not being put away or ordered in places where they are out of the immediate visual field, have a constant demand on his attention.

 

homework1The work space needs to be clean and organised to foster the ability to sustain attention while doing school work. Make sure all unnecessary books, papers, stationary, etc. is packed away so that your child can start with a clean space to start organising the things that he will use during the homework session. Make neat piles of the books he will need and you can even order them according to priority as mentioned above. Make sure all the stationary equipment is set out and ready for use. Put off the television and radio and make sure that the work space is free of unnecessary distractions. If your child works better while listening to classical or relaxation music, then let him put earphones on to listen to this. I will discuss the impact of music on concentration in a subsequent blog.

 

 

*  Well-developed executive functions is part of structure

 

Children with concentration problems may experience any or all of the following problems regarding executive functions:

 

  • Identifying the problem or knowing what the finished product of a task should look likeAlthough teachers may give outlines of what the end products should look like, many children with concentration problems do not take the time to envision this or have the ability to know what steps to follow to complete the task. Because they are so scatter minded most of the time it is a very difficult task for them to put all the different pieces of a project together in their minds in an effort to mentally see the end result. Help your child by making or drawing a visual representation of what the end product should consist of. Do this in a graphic visual way so that your child knows exactly what should be done. You can add tasks or actions to these visual images to help your child understand what is expected of him in completing the project. If you do not teach your child how to do this type of planning, he will impulsively just start throwing things together that may look grossly disorganised and not thought through in the end. By teaching him to plan step by step, mistakes and a sloppy end result can be avoided, not to speak of saving time not having to do things over and over due to impulsive acts.

 

poster planningOn the left hand side I’ve included a visual representation of what is involved in a project like assimilating a poster on wild animals. This would obviously be an assignment for young children (in primary school).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Planning, executing and monitoring projects and assignments. The explanation under the previous point gives an idea of how to teach your child to plan and execute projects. In conjunction with planning and execution your child also needs to learn how to monitor himself and the product he is working on. While he works on every aspect of a project or assignment teach him to check everything. If it is a creative writing assignment, then teach him to check for punctuation, spelling and proper sentence construction after he has written or typed every sentence. If it is a more visual project like the one about the wild animals, then let him monitor if the pictures are placed in their right positions before it is pasted and if there will be enough space left to write captions to go with each picture.

 

Children with concentration problems also need to learn how to monitor their own mental processes. By teaching them to Picture12regularly “check” what they are thinking and if it is still appropriate to the task at hand, will help them a lot to stay focused and complete the assignment timeously. Typically children with concentration problems are scatter minded thinking about a million different things at the same time. Teach them to bring their thought processes back to what they are busy with even if they have to do it a thousand times during the course of completing the assignment. Becoming aware of your own thought processes is essentially a meta-cognitive activity, since you are thinking about what you are thinking. Meta-cognition and the ability to control mental processes by mere decision making are crucial tools for children with concentration problems to be able to function better.

 

  • Holding directions in mind, especially if the directions are complex or multi-step. This links strongly with the point I’ve made later on under the heading “Logical step-by-step thinking”. A child with concentration problems can think about one thing at a time and tends to get stuck when he has to determine what the next step is. Make visual step-by-step reminders to help him work in an organised manner without having to waste time thinking what needs to be done next. Later on, after your child has become more competent in organisation skills, let him draw up his own step-by-step lists.

 

  • Resisting or delaying impulses (example the tendency to blurt out answers instead of putting up your hand in class). As mentioned, children with concentration problems find it very hard to not pay attention to “nonsense” impulses. In an upcoming blog on the neuro-chemical aspects of ADHD I will go into more detail regarding this. For now just take note that these children need to learn how to say now to unrelated impulses while they’re busy with a specific task. If they can learn how to have this control over their mental processes (with the assistance of supplements or medication for ADHD children) then they have come a long way in mastering an area of paramount importance in being able to competently and independently complete tasks.homework6

 

  • Difficulty with getting started on assignments (despite interest in the work). As mentioned several times in this blog, children with concentration problems do not automatically know where to start with an assignment. You will have to help such a child to work in a step-by-step manner by prompting him to think of what he needs to do first when he sees an addition sum, or when he needs to write a story, or what he needs to do when reading a piece of history. Again, make lists and visual reminders.

 

  • Setting goals and carrying out steps to achieve the goals. Help children with concentration problems to set goals for themselves since they do not know how to do this. The reason for them not knowing lies mainly in their problem of envisioning what they want and then to work out strategically how to get there. Ask many questions regarding ideals and make a few suggestions yourself, until your child knows what he would like to achieve. A positive approach in discussing this within the framework of a warm loving relationship will help your child to become motivated to set goals.   Make sure these goals are realistic though.

 

Visual reminders

 

Bulletin/notice boards, charts and calendars are all mediums to help create structure. Make good use of them. Try to create priority lists and put them up on bulletin Picture6boards near the home work space. On such a priority list tasks can be ordered from most important to least important, for example first study for a test, then work on project, then do maths, etc. These priority lists can also be set up in advance for a week, a month or even a term. By making use of calendars you can make sure that a project or upcoming test does not come as a surprise at the last hour.

 

Incentives charts to reinforce good homework behaviour, like staying on task and completing work, helps to motivate children to keep on doing what is expecting of them. Children get a sense of accomplishment when they see that the tokens or stars on the chart increases towards a reward. A small thing like a candy bar or a trip to McDonalds will be enough to motivate young children to stick to what is expected. Do not incorporate too many requirements on the chart – just one or two – especially for very young children.

 

*  Logical step-by-step thinking

 

After organising the work space it is time to teach your child how to approach the different homework tasks. By making lists in a step-by-step manner and putting them up on the bulletin board near their work space you create an immediate source to refer to when they get stuck.

 

steps for addition sums2Let’s take an example of a step-by-step list for the completion of addition sums. Doing these sums demand good logical step-by-step thinking. Children with concentration problems find it hard to remember these steps and without a reference to jog their memories you may find that they do not start their work or just stare into space. This is many times not because they are lazy (although in some cases it may be the reason), but because they do not know where to start and which steps to follow. The Picture7image on the left indicates the steps that such a list can contain. Put it on the notice board for your child to refer to whenever he gets stuck. You can also create these lists in such a format that your child can tick off the steps as he completes them, so that he knows exactly what the next step will be. After a lot of drilling in this way he should eventually be able to remember the steps by heart. You can also shorten the list by using a word or two under each point when your child is more competent at remembering the steps. If he has a reading problem or he cannot read so well yet (young children), then pictures can be used to indicate the various steps. Be creative, but do make reminder lists.

 

You can make these kinds of lists with different kinds of tasks on a practical or mental level in school tasks related to reading, writing and maths. By teaching a child to think methodically you’re creating a framework in the mind in which he can now be more focused on what to do instead of diverting his attention to other things because he doesn’t know where to start or what to do next.

 

By implementing these six structural activities above you not only teach your child how to organise his own life, but you are also creating a non-stressed environment. Disorganisation creates stress which impacts heavily on concentration. So stick to your planning schedule to createPicture8 a calmer, more in-control experience of homework.

 

The single most important factor that will impact structure profoundly is without doubt consistency regarding the aspects mentioned above. It’s all good and well if the principles above are done for a week or two, but if you as parent want real results in the form of character building in your child, where the orderly well-organised behaviour that you desire of him will become an intrinsic habit rather than an external enforcement, you will have to realise that it requires a lifestyle change and a certain mind set before you will see any authentic independent changes in your child’s way of approaching tasks.Picture9

 

Picture10And this is where the self-discipline formed in a parent since childhood rubs off on a child. Self-discipline and structure are joined at the hip. What you feed the one will influence the other. So make sure you employ the necessary self-discipline in implementing the activities above on a consistent basis. A child can only be helped as far as a parent is willing to influence him effectively.

 

I hope that these tips and guidelines will help you to incorporate structure more efficiently in your child’s life. Please leave your ideas and comments below. Every bit helps to enrich other people’s lives.

 

Next time I will address the very interesting topic of chemical imbalance in children with ADHD. Your understanding of the chemical processes in the mind supporting concentration will cast a new light on the array of interventions currently practiced to remedy inattention and ADHD.

 

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Ruling out possible factors causing concentration problems

hyperactive_pics2.pngIn my previous blog I’ve mentioned some of the elements that may contribute to concentration problems and why it is important to first consider them before consulting a medical professional. Let’s discuss each one of these points in more depth:

 

  1. A preschool and even primary school child should not be diagnosed with ADHD in a hurry. The reason for this lies primarily in the fact that they haven’t learned to control their abilities to stay focused optimally. They are still in the process of extending their attention faculties. Furthermore, children of this age is still very active – some more than others – which is natural and should not be misconstrued as being hyperactive or having an attention deficit. Before a child at preschool or primary school age is diagnosed with ADHD a thorough intervention program should first be implemented to ascertain that concentration problems may not be due to other factors than a chemical imbalance. More information on this will be provided in future blogs.
  2. The second possible reason for inattention provided in the previous blog was the possibility of a lack in structure and organised routine causing concentration problems. Some primary school children had no formal education before they’ve entered Grade 1 and in addition to that many children did not have the necessary structure and routines in their lives enabling them to adopt a way of doing and thinking that is more organised. If a child’s life is characterised by unpredictability and a chaotic haphazard way of dealing with the demands of everyday life, not much can be expected of the child regarding organisation and structure. Such a child learns to deal with things as they come up instead of being prepared due to the predictability of how to handle what comes next in an ordinary school day. This filters down from practical tasks to more complex abstract thought processing that needs to be aligned according to the task at hand. Parents and the preschool environment provide preschool children with much of the structure they need before entering Grade 1. If they didn’t attend a preschool class and the parents are also disorganised, then such a child will most probably appear to have concentration problems since he doesn’t know how to organise and structure his tasks and thinking processes.
  3. Some children, not only the very young ones, but also older children that should have outgrown the very energetic stage of pre- and primary school, are very unmotivated to learn and to be involved in school work. Although a learning disability or difficulty, or emotional problems may be legitimate reasons for not being interested in school work, there are a large portion of children presenting with inattention that are merely unmotivated to learn due to growing up in a culture where learning is not highly prioritised. At home the parents do not portray the importance of learning through role modelling and many times a climate of learning is not properly cultivated at home due to parents who are not interested in what their children do in school. They rarely attend to their child’s homework or even parents evening opportunities to learn more about school, the learning material and what is expected of the children according to the curriculum. Children reared in such an annihilated learning climate will rarely show any interest in school work. Consequently they do not see the reason for learning and maybe even going to school. School has become a prison to them from which they escape by acts of inattention – either daydreaming or being involved in other activities than school work.
  4. The fourth fact mentioned in the previous blog is that some children on entering school are emotionally not ready for the more formal tasks of Grade 1 work. They still want to and actually need to play more. If they are still very young and if the opportunity is granted to still “play” for one more year before going to Grade 1, they are many times more mature on an emotional and neuro-cognitive level to be able to adjust to the work demands of formal education. If this is not granted such a child may perceive school as a harsh unfriendly environment since he will continually be addressed to keep up with the work, to pay attention and to work harder. Again the school may become the child’s prison. Whereas when a child enters school when he is ready he/she may experience it as a stimulating challenging environment where he can portray his strengths and abilities. Parents should make very sure that their children are ready for the school environment when they enrol them in Grade 1, since it causes a lot of upheaval on the school’s, child’s and parent’s side when they discover in the course of Grade 1 that it would be better to take their child out of school to only go back the next year. However, even if this should be the case it is still better to remove the child from Grade 1 to “play” another year in preschool than facing the possibility of retention or all the other negative consequences mentioned above.
  5. In the fifth instance some children are exposed to emotional stressful situations or even abuse (physical and/or emotional) at home due to various factors. These children obviously find it very hard to stay focused due to constantly intruding fearful thoughts. Parents going through transitions such as divorce, moving to another house or area, changing jobs, illness and financial and/or family/relationship related difficulties must make sure that their children are supported on all levels, since all these factors can have a profound influence on a child’s ability to stay focused in school.
  6. The last point mentioned in the previous blog refers to authentic ADHD, which is due to chemical imbalances in the brain. Since this cannot be tested directly it has become a truly complicated task to determine whether a child has ADHD or not. Mere observation is not enough and a consultation or two at the doctor will not provide with the answers to make an informed decision regarding taking schedule 7 medication. As parent you can rule out many of the factors mentioned above so that by a process of elimination the cause of inattention can be narrowed down as far as possible to one or two factors. Even then just relying on a diagnosis and prescription medicine may not provide a viable solution to the problem. If all has been done and said as mentioned in the various possible causes of concentration problems above and the problem seems to persist to the extent that the child’s or the family’s functionality have been disrupted, then I would suggest that an Educational Psychologist undertakes an investigation in determining the possible causes and solutions to the problem. Carefully choose a thorough Educational Psychologist who will go the extra mile.

 

As you may realise by now, parents can play an extremely important role in eliminating possible factors negatively influencing their children’s concentration. If you have any ideas or solutions that you would like to add, please add your comments below.

 

My next blog will be about how you as a parent can help structure your child’s life with regard to school work.

 

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hyperactivity-clipart-toonvectors-11797-140Does my child have ADHD or not?

AUGUST 23, 2015  *  MARTIE JANSE VAN RENSBURG

ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is a term that has been flung around quite loosely by lay people. Every time a child presents with concentration problems the diagnosis of ADHD immediately presents itself as an easy route to a possible solution, because all you now have to do is to consult a doctor for a prescription of meds. But the whole arena of concentration problems is far more complex than what is commonly perceived.  

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hyperactivity pic2Ruling out possible factors causing concentration problems

SEPTEMBER 04, 2015  *  MARTIE JANSE VAN RENSBURG

In my previous blog I've mentioned some of the elements that may contribute to concentration problems and why it is important to first consider them before consulting a medical professional.  In this blog I'll discuss each one of these points in more depth.

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homework2How to provide structure to your child's school work

SEPTEMBER 09, 2015  *  MARTIE JANSE VAN RENSBURG

Many children who experience concentration problems also lack structuring skills when it comes to school work.  As a matter of fact all young children, especially foundation phase children in primary school, need structure to help them organise better, have more control over the tasks they have to do and experience a sense of calmness and competence.  

read more button

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Does my child have ADHD or not?

hyperactivity-clipart-toonvectors-11797-140ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is a term that has been flung around quite loosely by lay people. Every time a child presents with concentration problems the diagnosis of ADHD immediately presents itself as an easy route to a possible solution, because all you now have to do is to consult a doctor for a prescription of meds. But the whole arena of concentration problems is far more complex than what is commonly perceived.

 

First and foremost I would like to reiterate the fact that not all children with concentration problems have ADHD and therefore the first step in intervention is not to consult a medical professional. In my opinion only a few children with concentration problems have authentic ADHD. As a parent, before you rush off to the doctor, first consider the following:

  1. Young children (preschool and to a certain extent primary school children) are still very active and prone to be distracted easily. They haven’t learned yet to stay focused for extended periods of time on especially school related paper and books tasks.
  2. Some children haven’t been exposed to structure or a disciplined way of doing their school work and therefore appear disorganised and distractible.
  3. Some children are totally unmotivated to learn. They may have had little to no exposure to school related paper and books work. Consequently they find it extremely hard to pay attention to be able to do their work according to the set standard in a particular grade.
  4. In conjunction with the previous point some children on entering Grade 1 are still emotionally immature and consequently they still want to play instead of being confronted with the work demands pertaining to Grade 1 curriculum. They are just not ready for “work”.
  5. Some children grow up in circumstances at home where they experience a lot of emotional stress or even abuse (physical and/or emotional). Thus their thought processes are continuously interrupted by fears and worries which hinder them from staying focused.
  6. Finally there are the children who have real chemical imbalances - to such an extent that it becomes very hard for them to filter out “nonsense” messages in their brains. They are continually bombarded with impulses that prompt them to immediately act on them. These children have authentic ADHD.

 

To diagnose ADHD is therefore not only an act of observation or even asking a few historicity questions.   A more lengthy intervention process than a mere consultation or two (that so often is the case when consulting most medical professionals) as well as experience of the child’s reaction towards certain measures taken to filter out all the possible alternatives mentioned above are needed before any diagnosis can be made.

 

In my next blog I will give you some pointers on how to address the factors mentioned in this blog that have an influence on concentration.   The blog's name is:  Ruling out possible factors causing concentration problems.  In the meantime feel free to state your ideas and even add to the possible factors influencing concentration problems.

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